Smelt Mill Complex at Froggatt Wood, Longshaw Estate

Record ID:  60221*0 / MNA112814
Record type:  Monument
Protected Status: Scheduled Monument
NT Property:  Longshaw Estate; Midlands
Civil Parish:  Froggatt; Derbyshire Dales; Derbyshire
Grid Reference:  SK 247 772
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Summary

Ruins of a 18th century slag mill, with a water wheel, where smelting is believed to have taken place. It is a complex site with stone water channels, hearth, much slag and traces of buildings, dating from the 16th to the 18th century.

Identification Images (0)

Monument Types

  • SMELT MILL (Late 16th C to Mid 18th C - 1570 AD to 1750 AD)

Description

This is a group record for the post-medieval smelt mill complex in Froggatt Wood. For specific details about each component please see NTSMR 60221*1 – 60221*6.

The smelt mill, the most complete of its type to survive in Derbyshire was worked at an unknown period between C16 and C18. The site is located in a wooded area and a stream situated beside this provided water for a small wheel [60221*2] which would have operated bellows, blasting air for the lead smelter situated close by [60221*4]. The stone channel that brings water from the pond to the wheel [60221*1] still carries the water but the sluice which would have operated the flow no longer remains and the wheel pit is blocked with stone from the surrounding walls. The roughly constructed wall around the front of the wheel pit was built later than the back wall, which has a recess for the back of the wheel. Water from the wheel pit is still carried away underground by a tail race [60221*3] to emerge further down the slope and re-join the stream.

Below the site of the smelter there are a number of slag heaps [60221*6] and above the site of the wheel, built into the side of the hill, is a well preserved example of a White Coal Kiln [60221*5] which dryed wood ready for use in the smelter. White coal is a different type of fuel to charcoal and was used to smelt lead as it produces a slightly lower heat to charcoal and so avoids evaporating the lead away.

There are a number of worked stones lying on the surface close to the buildings and the site is enclosed by drystone walls but these may not be contemporary with the smelt mill. There is a well-made access track to the site from Froggatt and a gatepost standing where the track enters the site, but it has been suggested that the smelt mill was approached by an earlier track coming up the slope below the site.

The Froggatt Wood smelt mill is one of few 16th-17th century smelt mills in England to retain standing structures. The water channel and wood-drying kiln are particularly important features to survive and the survival of a largely undisturbed complex of this date, with a wide range of features, is rare. No excavation has been undertaken but it has been surveyed by Sheffield University Division of Continuing Education, 1985 (Crossley). As such the complex is protected as a designated scheduled monument.

References

  • SZE1141 - Article in serial: A Faulkner Taylor. 1988. Pathways of the Forgotten, Country Walking, August 1988.

  • SZE1159 - Document: Anon. 1975. Council for British Archaeology Panel on Industrial Mounuments 9. 9.

  • SZE12840 - Photograph - black and white: D Crossley. 01/01/1988. Pond showing sapling growth, Froggatt Wood, Longshaw. 2 M. 1.

  • SZE14177 - Photograph - black and white: D Crossley. 01/01/1988. White-coal kiln (entrance), Froggatt Wood, Longshaw. 2 M. 11.

  • SZE1444 - Graphic material: Harry Beamish. 1985. Froggatt Wood Smelt Mill, Approximate Sketch Plan. 100.

  • SZE16893 - Photograph - black and white: D Crossley. 01/01/1986. White-coal kiln (entrance), Froggatt Wood, Longshaw.. 2 M. 10.

  • SZE17333 - Photograph - colour: Lead Smelter, Froggatt Wood, Longshaw Estate. 4.

  • SZE17477 - Photograph - black and white: Harry Beamish. 01/12/1985. Site of wheel pit at Froggatt Wood Smelt Mill, Longshaw. 1 M. 2.

  • SZE21491 - Photograph - colour: Lead Shelter, Longshaw Estate. 5.

  • SZE22923 - Photograph - black and white: D Crossley. 01/01/1986. Wall within E end of smelting-house, Froggatt Wood, Longshaw. 2 M. 5.

  • SZE22924 - Photograph - black and white: D Crossley. 01/01/1985. Smelting-house, with W corners and sidewall lines marked by rods, Froggatt Wood, Longshaw. 2 M. 6.

  • SZE24610 - Photograph - black and white: D Crossley. 01/01/1986. Dam; displaced stones, before felling of trees, Froggatt Wood, Longshaw.. 2 M. 2.

  • SZE24726 - Photograph - colour: Froggatt Wood, Smelt mill, Longshaw Estate. 34.

  • SZE25247 - Photograph - black and white: D Crossley. 01/01/1988. White-coal kiln, Froggatt Wood, Longshaw.. 2 M. 13.

  • SZE2650 - Monograph: H Harris. 1971. Industrial Archaeology of the Peak District.

  • SZE28818 - Photograph - black and white: D Crossley. 01/01/1988. Head race, Froggatt Wood, Longshaw. 2 M. 4.

  • SZE32524 - Photograph - black and white: D Crossley. 01/01/1988. Dam: displaced stones, Froggatt Wood, Longshaw. 2 M. 3.

  • SZE33858 - Photograph - black and white: Harry Beamish. 01/12/1985. Dam above the smelt mill complex, Froggatt Mill, Longshaw Estate.. 5.

  • SZE33859 - Photograph - black and white: Harry Beamish. 01/12/1985. Stone water channel, Froggatt Wood Smelt Mill, Longshaw. 1 M. 4.

  • SZE35786 - Photograph - black and white: D Crossley. 01/01/1988. Smelting House, Froggatt Wood, Longshaw Estate.. 2 M. 9.

  • SZE37528 - Photograph - black and white: D Crossley. 01/01/1986. White-coal kiln, Froggatt Wood, Longshaw. 2 M. 12.

  • SZE41334 - Photograph - black and white: D Crossley. 01/01/1985. Smelting-house interior, Froggatt Wood, Longshaw. 2 M. 8.

  • SZE42841 - Photograph - black and white: Harry Beamish. 01/12/1985. Site of White Coal Kiln, Longshaw Estate. 1 M. 3.

  • SZE45688 - Photograph - black and white: D Crossley. 01/01/1988. Smelting-house, Froggatt Wood, Longshaw. 2 M. 7.

  • SZE7222 - Unpublished document: D Crossley. 1988. Ore-hearth, Lead-smelter, Froggatt Wood, Derbyshire. Surveyed 1986-7; re-photographed 1988..

  • SZE7260 - Monograph: L Willies. 1972. 27.

  • SZE7812 - Article in serial: A Faulkner Taylor. 1988. The Froggatt Lead Smelter, Derbyshire Life, Dec. 1988.

  • SZE9421 - Unpublished document: P D Claris. 1988. Site visit: Froggatt Wood Lead Smelting Mill, Longshaw,.

Designations

Other Statuses and References

  • HER/SMR Reference (External): 5907
  • National Park

Associated Events

  • ENA1030 - Field Survey, Survey and re-photographing of Froggatt Wood Ore-hearth and Lead Smelter, Longshaw Estate

Associated Finds

None Recorded

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