Moated House (preceptory), St John's Jerusalem

Record ID:  129901 / MNA128718
Record type:  Building
Protected Status: Scheduled Monument, Listed Building: Grade II*
NT Property:  St John's Jerusalem; London and South East
Civil Parish:  Sutton-at-Hone and Hawley; Dartford; Kent
Grid Reference:  TQ 5588 7036
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Summary

A preceptory of the order of the Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem was founded here in 1199 by Robert de Basing. Parts of the medieval building remain including the Chapel.

Identification Images (1)

View of St John's Jerusalem © National trust / Nathalie Cohen
View of St John's Jerusalem © National trust / Nathalie Cohen

Monument Types

  • HOUSE (Built, Medieval - 1066 AD (between) to 1539 AD (between))
  • PRECEPTORY (Built, Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Description

The monument includes a moated commandery and its associated fishpond (alleged - but now seen as watercress and watermint beds) situated beside the St John's Loop of the River Darent. The commandary lies on a NNW-SSE orientated, sub-rectangular, artificial island measuring 185m x 120m. In the NW quarter of the island are the remains of the commandery chapel, dating from the 13th century, incorporated within a later 16th century residence, with 17th century and substantial 18th and 19th century additions and alteration in brick and stucco applied to lathes, behind which is evidence of an earlier structure. Documentary evidence suggestes that the main period of medieval building took place around 1234, when Henry III is recorded as having ordered oaks from Tonbridge forest for the chapel roof. The chapel is a rectangular building, with external buttresses, constructed of flint rubble with ashlar dressings. It is lit by simple, lancet windows, several of which, along with the original doorway on the SE wall, have been blocked at a later date. The inside of the chapel, on the ground floor at the eastern end of the SE wall, is a double piscina, or alcove, originally containing water basins. At the SW end is a futher area of medieval walling which may represent the remains of a tower Traces of further commandery buildings may survive in buried form beneath the undulating ground which forms the modern gardens. The commandery is surround on all four sides by a shallow moat, accessed by a bridge on the W arm.

This Knights Hospitaller's Commandery was dissolved by Henry VIII in 1540 and in March 1544 the Manor and Chantry was granted "in fee" to Sir Maurice Dannys. Amongst its later owners was Abraham Hill, a founder member of the Royal Society, who lived there between 1667 and 1721, and, between 1757 and 1776, Edward Hasted, the Kent Historian, rented the property and made substantial alterations to Abraham Hill's improvements. It was later owned by the Mumford family and then Sir Stephen and Lady Tallents who gave it the National in 1943.

Archaeological remains of the Commandery survive well and the site is of national importance.

The house is Grade II* and the land beneath the building, as with the whole of the site, is a Scheduled Monument.

Evaluation during repairs to the West Wing North Wall (Rumley, 2008) indicates that this wing may be part of the primary medieval phase, although much altered. A cavity in this wing may be an earlier entrance or window, or the remains of a garderobe.

References

  • --- SZZ1012 - Photograph - black and white: Tallent's family album. Four views on a single page, the west front from pond, view along the drive, South West view from park house..

  • --- SZZ1022 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. View North West to fireplace and window across Parlour in the South West Corner of the house.

  • --- SZZ1032 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. Close detail of the brickwork on the West front stripped of render.

  • --- SZZ1051 - Map: 1840-2. Tithe Map.

  • --- SZZ1058 - Document: T C Mallik. 1984. The Church of St John's Jerusalem.

  • --- SZZ1066 - Measured Survey: Kate Lawrie and Martin Tallents. 1968. Tallents' Plan of the Commandery Chapel at St John's Jerusalem. 8ft to the inch.

  • --- SZZ1084 - Photograph - black and white: RCHME. 1997. N W Wing From N W.

  • --- SZZ1094 - Photograph - black and white: K Gravett. 1968. View taking in N elevation of house.

  • --- SZZ1115 - Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1951. St John's. 1:1000. 4052.

  • --- SZZ1124 - Aerial Photograph: OS. 1991. St John's. 1:4800. 117.

  • --- SZZ1018 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. Close view of the South side of the house from the South West.

  • --- SZZ1028 - Photograph - black and white: Talents Family Album. Distant view of the house from the park to the South West.

  • --- SZZ1038 - National Trust Report: S Harlow. 1988. Survey of St John's Jerusalem Garden.

  • --- SZZ1047 - National Trust Report: Oxford Institute of Archaeology. 1972. Tree-Ring Dating Report St John's Jerusalem.

  • --- SZZ1052 - Map: c1850. Estate Map of St John's Jerusalem.

  • --- SZZ1056 - Unpublished document: Sir Stephen Tallents. 1944. A History of St John's Jerusalem.

  • --- SZZ1080 - Photograph - black and white: RCHME. 1997. From North.

  • --- SZZ1090 - Photograph - black and white: K Gravett. 1968. S Front.

  • --- SZZ1108 - Aerial Photograph: NMR. 1998. St John's.

  • --- SZZ1120 - Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1955. St John's. 1:1000. 171 (F22).

  • --- SZZ1011 - Photograph - black and white: Tallent's family album. 1930's. View across the moat to east end of house. Looking west.

  • --- SZZ1021 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. View of South front from the South East.

  • --- SZZ1031 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. Close view of the house from the North West, North side central section, West end straight on.

  • --- SZZ1057 - Unpublished document: Beresford-Webb. ?. An Englishman's Home.

  • --- SZZ1083 - Photograph - black and white: RCHME. 1997. View From Beneath Large Tree To S W.

  • --- SZZ1093 - Photograph - black and white: K Gravett. View taking in N Chapel yard.

  • --- SZZ1104 - Aerial Photograph: NMR. 1998. St John's.

  • --- SZZ1110 - Aerial Photograph: NMR. St John's.

  • --- SZZ1112 - Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1950. St John's. 3069.

  • --- SZZ1123 - Aerial Photograph: OS. 1989. St John's. 1:8050. 065.

  • --- SZZ1017 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. View North across the commandery Chapel to the fireplace inserted under medieval window.

  • --- SZZ1027 - Photograph - black and white: Tallenst Famil Album. View across the kitchen garden to the South East of the house.

  • --- SZZ1055 - Document: T C Mallik. 1978. A Brief History of the House of St John Jerusalem, Sutton-at-Hone.

  • --- SZZ1079 - Photograph - black and white: RCHME. 1997. NE Wing. Oblique View From NE.

  • --- SZZ1089 - Photograph - black and white: K Gravett. 1972. View taking in SW corner of House.

  • --- SZZ1099 - Photograph - black and white: A F Kersting. 1956. View across moat to taking in W end.

  • --- SZZ1103 - Aerial Photograph: NMR. 1998. St John's.

  • --- SZZ1111 - Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. St John's. 1:1000. 3141.

  • --- SZZ1119 - Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1955. St John's. 1:1000. 170 (F22).

  • --- SZZ1007 - National Trust Report: Peter E Leach. 1994. St John's Jerusalem Archaeological Report.

  • --- SZZ1015 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. View across the roof of the house to the park.

  • --- SZZ1025 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. Close view of the North door to the Chapel.

  • --- SZZ1040 - National Trust Report: Peter E Leach. 1998. Archaeological Report (watching brief) During Conservation of House 1996/7 (DRAWINGS).

  • --- SZZ1053 - Document: Country Life. 1938. The Home of Sir Stephen Tallents.

  • --- SZZ1061 - Pamphlet: National Trust. 1989. St John's Guidebook.

  • --- SZZ1077 - Photograph - black and white: RCHME. 1997. General View From East.

  • --- SZZ1087 - Photograph - black and white: RCHME. 1997. Junction of N W Wing and N Elevation.

  • --- SZZ1097 - Photograph - black and white: K Gravett. 1972. S view of Chapel.

  • --- SZZ1105 - Aerial Photograph: NMR. 1998. St John's.

  • --- SZZ1117 - Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1954. St John's. 1:15000. 91 (F61).

  • --- SZZ1127 - Aerial Photograph: OS. 1992. St John's. 1:6000. 399.

  • --- SZZ1010 - Photograph - black and white: Tallent's family album. View of west front of house from the SW. SW.

  • --- SZZ1020 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. West end of North front - stucco removed and under scaffolding.

  • --- SZZ1030 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Famil Album. View East the length of the Entrance Hall.

  • --- SZZ1072 - Document: English Heritage. 1994. Schedual Entry Copy.

  • --- SZZ1082 - Photograph - black and white: RCHME. 1997. North East Wing. Oblique View From S E.

  • --- SZZ1092 - Photograph - black and white: K Gravett. 1972. View taking in N E corner of Chapel.

  • --- SZZ1101 - Aerial Photograph: NMR. 1998. St John's.

  • --- SZZ1106 - Aerial Photograph: NMR. 1998. St John's.

  • --- SZZ1122 - Aerial Photograph: OS. 1989. St John's. 1:8050. 064.

  • --- SNA63192 - National Trust Report: Peter Rumley. 2008. Archaeological Evaluation of West Wing North Wall, St John's Jerusalem.

  • --- SZZ1016 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. View from the front of the house South West across the park.

  • --- SZZ1026 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. View across the moat to the house from the South East.

  • --- SZZ1041 - National Trust Report: Peter E Leach. 2000. Archaeological Watching Brief Report During the Installations of New Oil Tank, St John's Jerusalem.

  • --- SZZ1054 - Unpublished document: D. Owens & G. Brown. 2001. St John's Jerusalem (History Notes).

  • --- SZZ1062 - National Trust Report: NT. 1995. Report on the re-presentation of the Chapel/Billard Room at St John's Jerusalem.

  • --- SZZ1078 - Photograph - black and white: RCHME. 1997. General View From South.

  • --- SZZ1088 - Photograph - black and white: RCHME. 1997. Rear From N.

  • --- SZZ1098 - Photograph - black and white: A F Kersting. 1956. S Front.

  • --- SZZ1113 - Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1952. St John's. 1:1000. 3084.

  • --- SZZ1118 - Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1954. St John's. 1:5000. 92( F61).

  • --- SZZ1019 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. Three views: House from the South West, Oblique view of South front from the East, East end of the house from Kitchen Garden.

  • --- SZZ1029 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. Close view of the West end of the house stripped of stucco.

  • --- SZZ1081 - Photograph - black and white: RCHME. 1997. General View From North.

  • --- SZZ1091 - Photograph - black and white: K Gravett. 1968. View taking N W corner of house.

  • --- SZZ1100 - Aerial Photograph: NMR. 1998. St John's.

  • --- SZZ1102 - Aerial Photograph: NMR. 1998. St John's.

  • --- SZZ1114 - Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1952. St John's. 1:1000. 3085.

  • --- SZZ1121 - Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1963. St John's. 1:1000. 138 (1F22).

  • --- SNA62997 - National Trust Report: Peter Rumley. 2006. Archaeological and Historic Landscape Survey of St John's Jerusalem, Sutton-at-Hone, Kent.

  • --- SZZ1006 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. View of the house from the SW. SW.

  • --- SZZ1014 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. View across the panelled Drawing Room to the niche and door to the right of fireplace..

  • --- SZZ1024 - Photograph - black and white: Family Album. View across river (moat) to the house from the South East.

  • --- SZZ1039 - National Trust Report: Peter E Leach. 1998. Archaeological Watching Brief Report During Conservation of House 1996/7 (TEXT).

  • --- SZZ1060 - Pamphlet: Sir Stephen Tallents. 1944. St Johns Jerusalem Guidebook.

  • --- SZZ1068 - Measured Survey: Theodora C Mallik. 1983. Mallick's Plan of the Church of the Knights Hospitallers of St John Jerusalem. 1/8inch to 1foot.

  • --- SZZ1076 - Photograph - black and white: RCHME. 1997. Detail of South Front Elevation.

  • --- SZZ1086 - Photograph - black and white: RCHME. 1997. N W Wing From N E.

  • --- SZZ1096 - Photograph - black and white: K Gravett. 1972. View of blocked door in S front.

  • --- SZZ1107 - Aerial Photograph: NMR. 1998. St John's.

  • --- SZZ1109 - Aerial Photograph: NMR. 1998. St John's.

  • --- SZZ1116 - Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1952. St John's. 1:1000. 3051.

  • --- SZZ1126 - Aerial Photograph: OS. 1992. St John's. 1:600. 398.

  • --- SZZ1004 - Field Recording Form: Peter T J Rumley. 2005. Historic Landscape Survey of St John's Jerusalem Field Notes.

  • --- SZZ1013 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. View across the river (moat) to the garden and distantly to the East end of the house..

  • --- SZZ1023 - Photograph - black and white: Tallents Family Album. View East up the first flight of stairs.

  • --- SZZ1034 - Unpublished document: Sebastian Strobl. 1997. The Wall Paintings Workshop, St John's Jerusalem.

  • --- SZZ1059 - Graphic material: ?. ?. Plan of the Development of the House.

  • --- SZZ1067 - Measured Survey: P K Kipps. c1970. Kipps' Plan of the Remain of the Chapel of the Knights Hospitallers. 1/8inch to 1ft.

  • --- SZZ1075 - Photograph - black and white: RCHME. 1997. Front Elevation St John's Jerusalem.

  • --- SZZ1085 - Photograph - black and white: RCHME. 1997. N E Wing From N W.

  • --- SZZ1095 - Photograph - black and white: K Gravett. 1972. Close view of S front.

  • --- SZZ1125 - Aerial Photograph: OS. 1991. St John's. 1:8050. 118.

  • --- SNA68974 - National Trust Report: Peter Rumley. 2012. An Archaeological Survey of the Exterior of St John's Jerusalem, Kent.

  • --- SNA69639 - National Trust Report: Peter Rumley. 2005. Archaeological Watching Brief on Servants' Stair, St John's Jerusalem, Kent.

  • --- SNA69642 - Article in serial: JF Wadmore. 1897. The Knights Hospitaller in Kent. Archaeologia Cantiana, 22.

  • --- SNA69643 - Article in serial: PK Kipps. 1935. The Chapel of the Knights Hospitaller, Sutton-at-Hone, Kent. Archaeologia Cantiana, 47.

  • --- SNA69647 - National Trust Report: National Trust. 1996. The National Trust: Annual Archaeological Review. No 5.

  • --- SNA69648 - National Trust Report: National Trust. 1997-1998. The National Trust: Annual Archaeological Review. No 6.

  • --- SNA69651 - National Trust Report: National Trust. 1999-2000. The National Trust: Annual Archaeological Review. No 8.

  • --- SNA69652 - National Trust Report: National Trust. 2001-2002. The National Trust: Annual Archaeological Review. No 10.

  • --- SNA69791 - National Trust Report: Anne Sassin. 2023. Geophysical Survey Report of St John’s Jerusalem, Sutton-at-Hone, Kent.

  • --- SNA70061 - National Trust Report: National Trust. 2023. Archaeological Watching Brief: North Yard, St John's Jerusalem, Sutton-at-Hone.

  • --- SNA70192 - Website: National Trust London and SE Region. 2023-4. 3D Sketchfab model collection at St John's Jerusalem. https://skfb.ly/oOZys.

  • --- SNA70233 - National Trust Report: Canterbury Archaeological Trust. 2024. Archaeological Watching Brief: North Yard, St John's Jerusalem, Sutton-at-Hone.

Designations

Other Statuses and References

None Recorded

Associated Events

  • ENA2148 - Field Survey, Archaeological and Historic Landscape Survey of St John's Jerusalem, Sutton-at-Hone, Kent, 2006
  • ENA2151 - Field Survey, The Wall Painting Workshop Report, St John's Jerusalem, 1996
  • ENA2156 - Non Archaeological Intervention, St John's Jerusalem Archaeological Report During Installation of New Oil Tank, 2000
  • ENA2160 - Field Survey, St John's Jerusalem: Archaeological Report, 1994
  • ENA2161 - Field Survey, Tree-Ring Dating Survey at John's Jerusalem, 1972
  • ENA5439 - Archaeological Intervention, St John's Jerusalem Archaeological Evaluation of West Wing North Wall, 2008
  • ENA9990 - Field Survey, An Archaeological Survey of the Exterior of St John's Jerusalem, Kent, 2011
  • ENA2155 - Field Survey, St John's Jerusalem Archaeological Report During Conservation 1996/7
  • ENA2154 - Field Survey, Survey of St John's Jerusalem Garden, 1988
  • ENA10601 - Non Archaeological Intervention, Archaeological Watching Brief on Servants Stair, St John's Jerusalem, Kent, 2004
  • ENA10603 - Field Survey, Geophysical Survey of Parts of the Moated Site at St John's Jerusalem, Kent, 2023
  • ENA10857 - Non Archaeological Intervention, Archaeological Watching Brief: North Yard, St John's Jerusalem, Sutton-at-Hone, 2023
  • ENA10858 - Archaeological Intervention, Archaeological Research Excavation: St John's Jerusalem, Sutton-at-Hone, 2023
  • ENA10967 - Field Survey, Photographic surveys to create online 3D models of trenches, structures at artefacts at St John's Jerusalem, Kent 2023-4
  • ENA10968 - Field Survey, Topographic Survey, St John's Jerusalem, Sutton-at-Hone, Kent, 2024
  • ENA11022 - Non Archaeological Intervention, Archaeological Watching Brief: North Yard, St John's Jerusalem, Sutton-at-Hone, 2024
  • ENA11041 - Field Survey, Measured Survey of St John's Jerusalem, Sutton-at-Hone, Kent, 1983

Associated Finds

None Recorded

Related Records

None Recorded